Ablution
Time of Prayers
Athan and Iqama
Conduct of Prayers
Occasional Prayers

OCCASIONAL SALAT

A guide to SALAT (Prayer)
Muhammad Abdul Karim Saqib
Darussalam: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

WITR PRAYER

Witr prayer is Sunnat Muakkadah. It is very much emphasized by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He did not leave this Salat even during a journey or when mounted on camel back.

It was so much emphasized that some Muslim scholars understood that it was Wajib (compulsory) but after a careful study of Ahadith it can be said that it is not Wajib but a very much emphasized Salat prayer.

Witr prayer is often mistakenly thought of as part of the Isha prayer. This is not so. Witr prayer is a separate prayer which can be offered after the Isha prayer right up to the break of dawn. for the convenience of the believers, prophet(pbuh) allowed Witr to be offered straight after Isha.

In Arabic, the word Witr means: One. In Ahadtih Allah's Messenger (pbuh) says: "Allah is One, so He likes the number one." (Muslim)

Allah also likes odd numbers because when an odd number is divided by 2, the remainder is always one. for this reason Prophet (pbuh) preferred odd numbers. He liked to do things in odd numbers. He liked to do things in odd numbers in his routine life also, such as: when offering Salat, saying Du'a, eating dates, etc. That is why Prophet (pbuh) asked the believers to pray Witr at the end of the night prayer so that it can make the night prayer into an odd number.

Abdullah bin Umar says that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: "Night prayer is to be offered in 2 Rakaat units. When one of you feels that dawn is near then he should offer 1 Rakaat which can make all the night prayer he offered into an odd number." (Bukhari and Muslim).

Number of Rakat of Witr Prayer

Abdullah bin Umar said that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: "Witr prayer is one Rakaat at the end of the Nafl prayer at night."

"Oh Allah, help me to remember You all the time, And to thank You, and to worship You perfectly".

"There is no God but Allah, He is the only One and has no partner, sovereignty and praise are only for Him, and He has full authority over everything."

Nobody can prevent whatever You want to give and nobody can give whatever You want to prevent and a person with high rank cannot benefit himself or another from his high rank against Your will." (Bukhair, Muslim)

It is Sunnat to say:

Glory be to Allah (33 times)
Praise be to Allah (33 times)
Allah is the Greatest (34 times)

There are very many Du'a which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to say and he taught them to his companions. These can be found in famous books of Hadith.

Abu Ayyub says that Prophet Muhammad said: "Every Muslim should pray Witr. Anyone who likes to pray 5 Rakaat of Witr, he should do so; anyone who likes to pray 3 Rakaat, he should do so; and anyone who likes to pray one Rakaat, he should do so." (Abu Dawus, Nasai and Ibn Majah)

We understand from the above mentioned Ahadith that the actual Witr prayer is one Rakaat, although a person can offer, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 Rakaat of Witr prayer. All of these numbers are approved by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in authentic Ahadith.

Time of Witr Prayer

Witr prayer can be offered after the Isha prayer right up to the break of dawn. Aishah said: " Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) prayed Witr during all times of the night. sometimes he prayed Witr during the first part of the night, sometimes during the middle part of the night, and sometimes during the end part of the night, but he used to complete the prayer before the break of dawn." (Bukhair and Muslim)

However, a person who thinks he could not get up to pray Witr at the end part of the night, can offer Witr immediately after Isha or before he goes to bed. But someone who thinks that he can get up and pray Nafl at night, should pray Witr at the end of his night prayer.

Jabir said that the Prophet (pbuh) said: "anyone of you who could not get up at the end part of the night, he should pray Witr in the first part of the night; and anyone of you who thinks he can get up at the end part of the night, he should pray Witr then, because the angels are present for the prayer offered at the end part of the night." (Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)

How to Pray Witr

When praying one Witr, a person can offer it as the usual prayer.

When praying 3, 5, 7 or 9 Rakaat of Witr prayer, there is more than one way the prayer can be offered.

For example:

a) A person praying 3 Rakaat Witr can pray 2 Rakaat like the usual prayer. After the Salutation, As salama Alaykum wa rahmutul-lah, first to the right and then to the left, he should get up immediately to complete the third Rakaat. This way of offering Witr prayer is called Witr bil falal

b) A person praying 3 Rakaat or 5 Rakaat Witr should not sit for Tashahud in between the Rakaat except in the last Rakaat.

c) A person praying 3, 5, 7 Rakaat Witr should sit in Tashahud in the last but one Rakaat, e.g. in the second Rakaat if he is offering 3 Witr, fourth Rakaat if he is offering 5 Witr, or sixth Rakaat if he is offering 7 Witr and so on. He should read Tashahud and then get up for the last Rakaat and complete it.

All 3 methods are authentic and are practiced by the great Ulama and scholars. so Muslims can choose any one of these 3 methods to offer the Witr prayer. When praying 3 Rakaat Witr , however , it is preferable to choose method a or b as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: "Do not make your Witr prayer similar to your Maghrib prayer." (Qiyamul-lail)

Du'a in Qunat in Witr Prayer

Reading Du'a Qunut in the last Rakaat of the Witr Prayer is a proved practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and it can be read before Ruku or after Ruku a) Someone who wants to read Qunut before Ruku, he should read it after he has finished reciting Surah FAtihah and chapter of the Holy Quran. While reciting Du'a Qunut, a person can cup his hands in front of him or he can leave them folded.

b) Someone who wants to read Du'a Qunut after the Rukku, he can read it with his hands cupped in front of him or he can let his hands rest at his sides. Saying Du'a after the Ruku and cupping hands in front is preferable as this was the practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

Some Fuquha insist that reading Du'a Qunut is compulsory in the last Rakaat of the Witr and some others say it is compulsory in the last Rakaat of the Fajr prayer, but if you study Ahadtih carefully you will find that it is not compulsory either in the Witr or in the Fajr prayer. Therefore, if a person leaves Du'a Qunut in his Witr prayer, his prayer will not be deficient. Also, if someone does not know Du'a Qunut, he need not say another cahpter of the Quran or any other words in its replacement. Du'a Qunut, can be read in any Salat.

Text of the Qunut

a) Hasan bin Ali said that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) taught me the words which I should say in the Du'a of Witr:

"Oh Allah, make me among those whom You have guided, and make me among those whom You have saved, and make me among those whom You have chosen, and bless whatever You have given me, and protect me from he evil which You have decreed; verily, You decide the things and nobody can decide against You; surely the person You befriended can't be disgraced, and the person You opposed can't be honored. You are Blessed, our Lord and Exalted, we ask for Your forgiveness and turn to You. Peace and Mercy of Allah be upon the Prophet."

"Oh Allah, we ask You for help and seek Your Forgiveness, and we believe in You and have trust in You, and we praise You in the best way and we thank You and we are not ungrateful to You, and we forsake and turn away from the one who disobeys You. O Allah, we worship You only and pray to You and prostrate ourselves before You, and we run towards You and serve You, and we hope to receive Your Mercy, and we fear Your punishment. Surely, the disbelievers will receive Your punishment."

Some Ulama recommend this Du'a in the Witr prayer. Of course, it can be read as it is a nice Du'a but it is not one of those Du'a which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) read in his Qunut.

There are some other Du'a which Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to read in his Qunut in the Witr prayer or in his other prayers.

A person can read all these Du'a together or just one of them or combine them with other Du'a.

JUMAH (FRIDAY PRAYERS)

Importance of attending Friday prayer

Friday prayer is very important in Islam. It has got its own moral, social and political benefits. It is obligatory on every Muslim except women, children, slaves, seriously ill people and travelers. They can pray Jumah but it is not obligatory on them.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has given a strong warning to a person who leaves his Jumah prayer without a good reason.

In one Hadith Abdullah bin Masud narrates what Allah's Messenger (pbuh) once said about the people who did not come to the Friday prayer without a good reason.

"I wish to appoint someone to lead the prayer and myself go to the houses of those who missed the Friday prayer and set fire to their houses with the occupants in them." (Muslim, Ahmad)

Another Hadith states: " A person who leaves 3 Friday prayers consecutively, Allah puts a seal on his heart." (Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud)

Importance of cleanliness for Friday prayer

Because in Friday prayer a comparatively large number of Muslims gather in a big place, so, Islam emphasizes on the physical cleanliness as well.

Prophet said: " A person who has a bath on Friday, cleanses himself fully, uses oil and perfume; then goes to the mosque early in the afternoon and takes his place quietly without pushing or disturbing people; then he prays (optional prayer as much as he was able to pray); then sits quietly listening to the Khutbah, he will be forgiven his sins between this Jumah and the next Jumah." (Bukhairi)

Importance of going early to Friday prayer

On Friday it is more rewarding to get ready quickly to go to the mosque. Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: " On Friday the angels stand at the door of the mosque and write down the names of the people in the order in which they enter the mosque for Friday prayer. the first group of people who enter the mosque get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a camel, the people who enter the mosque after them get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a cow. The people who enter the mosque after them get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a ram and the people who follow likewise get the reward of a chicken, egg, and so on, there is a gradation of rewards for the people as they enter. The angels keep writing the names of the people as they enter the mosque until the Imam sits down to give Khutbah. Then the angels collect their registers and sit and listen to the Khutbah. (Bukhairi and Muslim)

Salat before Jumah

A person who goes to attend Friday prayer can pray as many Nafl as he wishes after the sun has declined from its zenith to when the Imam comes to give Khutbah. Anyhow he is expected to pray at least 2 Rakaat Sunnat.

Listening to Khutbah (Religious Talk)

Once the Khutbah starts, the whole congregation should listen to it in silence. If a person arrives while the Imam is giving Khutbah then this person should pray 2 Rakaat Nafl before sitting down to listen to Khutbah.

Jabir said that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said while he was giving Khutbah: "If anyone of you goes to attend the Friday prayer while the Imam is delivering Khutbah , he should pray 2 Rakaat and should not make them long." (Muslim)

There is another Hadith. Jabir says that one a man came to Friday prayer while Allah's messenger (pbuh) was delivering Khutbah, so Allah's Messenger (pbuh) asked him, "Did you pray?" "No", he answered. Then Prophet (pbuh) said to him, "Stand up and pray." (Bukhair, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi)

It is a continuous practice in some mosques that those who arrive, while the Imam is giving speech, sit down and listen to the speech. When the Imam has finished the speech he gives time to the late arrivals to pray 2 or 4 Rakaat Sunnat. After that the Imam gives a short Khutbah in Arabic before praying the Jumah prayer.

These people get very annoyed if the see a person offering 2 Rakaat Sunnat while the Imam is giving speech. They feel that the person is being disrespectful to the Imam. This is incorrect and unproved from the practice of Prophet Muhammad. (pbuh). It is also against those Ahadith which we mentioned above and the one we are mentioning below:

Abi Qatadah says that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: "Whenever one of you enters the mosque he should not sit down without offering 2 Rakaat." (Bukhairi and Muslim)

These Ahadith clarify the points which are mispractised as above. The Imam and Ulama who have even a slight fear of Allah and respect for Hadith and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) should stop this practice and should not become annoyed when others pray 2 Rakaat.

Actual Jumah Prayer

Jumah prayer is 2 Rakaat Fard. If a person is late and finds only 1 Rakaat with the congregation, he should complete the second Rakaat alone. If a person arrives so late that he misses the Jumah prayer completely then he has to offer 4 Rakaat Fard of Zuhr prayer. The Jumah prayer is replacement of Zuhr prayer but the Imam has to recite Qirat aloud in Jumah prayer.

Salat After Jumah

After the Jumah prayer, 2 Rakaat of Sunnat prayer is an authentically proved practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) but some companions used to pray 4 or 6 Rakat sunnat after the Jumah prayer.

Ibn Umar says that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) did not pray after the Friday prayer until he went home and then he prayed 2 Rakaat. (Bukhairi and Muslim)

Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's messenger (pbuh) said: "anyone of you who is going to pray after the Friday prayer, he should pray 4 Rakaat." (Muslim)

Ata says: "Whenever Abdullah bin Umar prayed Jumah in Makkah, he would move a little forward after the Jumah prayer and offer 2 Rakaat; then he would move a little forward again and offer 4 Rakaat. And whenever he prayed Jumah in Al-Madina, he did not pray in the mosque after the Jumah prayer until he went back home; then he prayed 2 Rakaat. when he was asked why he did not pray in the mosque after the Jumah prayer. He answered, "This was the practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)."

These Ahadith clarify that 2, 4, 6 Rakat can be offered after the Jumah prayer according to the time and capacity of the person. It is not good practice to accuse people who read 2 Rakaat only because this, too, was the authentic practice of Prophet Muhammad. (pbuh).

EID PRAYER

Place for Eid prayer

Eid prayer should be offered outdoor in the open, e.g. in a park, field, for a desert, etc. If it is a wet or not possible to find a suitable outdoor place it can be prayed in a mosque or a large hall. (Abu Dawud)

Time of Eid Prayer

Eid prayer should be offered when the sun is obvious above the horizon.

Number of Rakaat of Eid Prayer

Eid prayer is 2 Rakaat. There is no Nafl prayer before or after the Eid prayer. there is no Iqamat or Adhan for Eid Prayer.

Ibn Abbas reported: " No doubt, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to pray 2 Rakaat only for Eid prayer. He did not pray anything before or after that. (Bukhari and Muslim)

Conduct of Eid Prayer

Two Rakaat of Eid prayer should be offered in the same manner as the 2 Rakaat of the usual prayer except that there are 7 Takbir in the first Rakaat and five Takbir in the second Rakaat. With each extra Takbir, the hands should be raised up to the shoulder level (as in Takbir Tahrimah).

All extra Takbir should be pronounced before starting Qirat (recitation).

Kathir bin Abdullah reported from his father and his father from his grandfather that Prophet(pbuh) said 7 Takbir in the first Rakaat of Eid prayer and 5 Takbir in the second Rakaat of Eid Prayer before beginning recitation. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Darmi)

Eid Prayer is Offered Before Khutbah

Jafar bin Muhammad reported: "No doubt, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Abu Bakr and Umar said 7 extra Takbir in the first Rakaat of their Eid and Rain Prayer and five extra Takbir in the second Rakaat of their Eid and Rain Prayer. Prophet (pbuh) offered Eid prayer before Khutbah and recited aloud." (Shafaee)

JANAZAH PRAYER (FUNERAL PRAYER)

It is a right of a Muslim that when he passes away, other Muslims should pray Janazah prayer for him. Janazah prayer is supererogatory prayer. If no one from the whole of the Muslim community prayed the Janazah prayer; then the whole community would be considered sinful in the Sight of Allah. If some of the people prayed the Janazah prayer then the whole community is saved from the Anger of Allah even though the reward will only be given to the participants only.

In Ahadith Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) emphasized and encouraged the Muslims to attend funeral ceremonies. So, every Muslim male should try his best to fulfill his duty for the deceased.

Janazah prayer should be prayed in congregation as this is more rewardful. It can be prayed in more than one congregation but by different people.

Janazah prayer should be offered in an open place but in case of rain or bad weather or any other reason it can be prayed in a mosque or a hall.

While Praying Janazah Prayer

The Imam should stand level with the head and shoulders of the dead body if the body is male. Imam should stand level with the middle part of the body if is a female.

Where Janazah prayer differs?

Janazah prayer is only slightly different from other prayers in that there is no Ruku, no Sajdah and no Tashahud in it. There is no fixed time for offering this prayer. It has to be prayed in a standing position only. Other conditions like purification, facing Qublah, Sutra, Dress etc. have to be satisfied as in the usual prayers.

Conduct of Janazah Prayer

Like other prayers facing Qiblah is a necessary condition. The Imam should ask the people to straighten their rows. There should be an odd number of rows as it is more rewardful. Making intention is necessary in Janazah prayer as it is necessary in other prayers. Before beginning prayer, the intention should be made in the heart as uttering any words of Niyah aloud was not the practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) or of his companions.

First Takbir or Takbir Tahrimah

Janazah prayer contains 4 Takbir. First Takbir is Takbir Tahrimah. The Imam says Allahu Akbar and raises his hands up to the shoulder level with fingers stretching to the earlobes and the congregation does the same. Then the Imam folds his hands on his chest right hand over the left.

Du'a of Starting

Then the person can read one of those Du'a which are recommended in the First Rakaat of the usual prayer before recitation of Fatihah. For example:

"Glory be to You, O Allah, and all praises are due unto You, and blessed is Your Name and high is Your Majesty and none is worthy of worship but You."

Or he can say other Du'a. some scholars do not recommend Du'a of starting in Janazah prayer but reading it is preferable. However, if someone does not read it, it does not affect his prayer. Both ways are practiced by Muslim Scholars. Then the person should say: "A'udhu bil lahi min ashatan arajeem" and then he should recite Surah Fatihah.

Some people do not read Surah Fatihah in Janazah prayer but Surah Fatihah is necessary of the validity of any type of prayer as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has said that no prayer is valid without Surah Fatihah.

Talhah bin Abdullah bin Auf says that he prayed the Janazah prayer behind Abdulah bin Abbas and Abdullah bin Abbas read Surah Fatihah aloud. Afterwards he said: "I did read it out loud so that you may know that it is the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)" (Bukhari)

This Hadith proves that reciting Surah Fatihah is necessary in Janazah prayer as well.

Recitation of a Surah

A chapter or part of a chapter can be read after the recitation of Surah Fatihah but it is not essential to read it.

Second Takbir

Then the Imam should say the second Takbir and the congregation should follow but it is not necessary to raise the hands up to the shoulder level but if someone does, it is alight. Both ways are practiced by great Ulama and scholars.

After the Second Takbir

After the second Takbir, the person praying Janazah should recite Darud in his heart. It is preferable to read the Darud which a person reads in Tashahud of his usual prayer.

Third Takbir

Then the Imam should say the third Takbir and the congregation should follow. Now, each person should pray for the deceased.

Alternatively the Imam can pray out loud and the congregation can say, Ameen, after him. all kinds of Du'a for the benefit of the deceased can be said. Some of these are mentioned below:

Du'a of Janazah

1. Abu Hurairah said that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) prayed Janazah of a Muslim and he said in his Du'a (the following words):

"O Allah, forgive our people who are still alive and who have passed away, forgive those who are present here and those who are absent, forgive our young and our elderly, forgive our males and females. O Allah, the one whom You wish to keep alive from among us make him live according to Islam and anyone whom You wish to die from among us, let him die in belief and faith. O Allah, do not deprive us from his reward and do not put us in Fitna (hardship or any type of trial) after his death."

2. Auf bin Malid said that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) prayed a Janazah prayer and I heard him saying the following Du'a and I memorized it:

"O Allah, forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him, grant him security, provide him a nice place and spacious lodgings, wash him (off from his sins) with water, snow and ice, purify him from his sins as a white garment is cleansed from dirt, replace his present body with a better one, replace his present family with a better one, replace his present partner with a better one, make him enter Paradise and save him from the trials of grave and punishment of Hell."

3. Abu Hurairah said that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) prayed and said:

"O Allah, You are its Lord, You have created it, and you have guided it towards Islam, and You have taken out his should and You know best about its secret and open deeds. We have come as intercessors, so forgive him."

One thing we can see clearly from the above mentioned Ahadtih that every companion who narrated the Du'a of Janazah prayer says that he heard the Prophet (pbuh) saying the words of Du'a in Janazah prayer. this proves that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) used to say the Janazah prayer or at least the Du'a in Janazah prayer aloud. Therefore, there should not be any objection or confusion if the Imam recites aloud in Janazah prayer.

There are some other Du'a which are narrated from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and they can be found in Hadith books. All of these Du'a can be said together or individually. Other Du'a can be said with these Du'a but it is better to stick to Du'a approved by Prophet (pbuh).

Ending the Janazah Prayer (fourth Takbir)

Then the Imam should say the fourth Takbir and the congregation should follow and after that the Imam should say Asalamu alaykum wa rahmutal-la turning his face to the right first and then to the left and then congregation should do the same.

Note: some people stress a lot of saying Du'a after the completion of Janazah prayer but we did not find a single Hadith supporting this idea. Janazah prayer is designed so that all the Du'a a person wants to say for the deceased can be said after the third Takbir. This was the authentic practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his companions.

SALAT DURING A JOURNEY

Islam is a practical way of life and considers the situations in which its followers may face difficulties. So Allah has made the things easy for the believers in such situations. Included in these facilities is the permission for shortening and combining daily prayers during a journey.

Qasr Prayer (short prayer)

When a Muslim is on a journey he should pray 2 Rakaat Fard for zuhr, asr and isha. Fajr and Maghrib prayers remain as they are.

It is more rewardful to pray a Qasr prayer while on a journey. Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said " It is a gift from Allah which he has bestowed upon you; so you should accept it." (Muslim)

COMBINING SALAT

A person on a journey can combine Zuhr and Asr prayers together praying them both at Zuhr or Asr time. He can also combine Maghrib and Isha prayers together praying them both at Maghrib or Isha time.

Ibn Abbas says that Allah's Messenger used to combine Zuhr and Asr together when he was on a journey and also he used to combine Maghrib and Isha. (Bukhari)

Muadh says that the Prophet (pbuh) was on a journey for the battle of Tabook. If the sun had already declined when he wanted to start his journey after having camped somewhere, he would combine his Zuhr and Asr prayers together and pray them both at Uhr time, and if he decided to move before the sun had declined then he delayed the Zuhr prayer and prayed it combined with Asr prayer at Asr time. And if the sun had already set when he wanted to move he would combine Maghrib and Isha together at Maghrib time. And if the sun had not set when he wanted to move he would delay Maghrib and pray it with Isha at Isha time. (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi)

These Ahadith are very clear in their meaning and prove that combining prayers while on a journey is a proved and regular practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Still, there are people who do not believe in combining prayers together while they are traveling. However , this is a gift from Allah which the believers should accept gratefully and if someone wants to reject Allah's and His Messenger's offer, it is up to him.

When to shorten and combine prayers?

Now, there is the question as to what is the limiting distance and the duration of the journey to make the facility of Qasr and Jama Valid?

a. Yahya bin Yazeed said, "I asked Anas bin Malid, "When the Qasr prayer was allowed?" Anas answered that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) whenever he went away about 3 miles he prayed Qasr." (Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Baihaqi) b. Abu Saeed says that "Whenever Rasulallah (pbuh) traveled about 1 farsah (about 3 miles) he would pray Qasr. (Talkhees Ibn Hajr)

On the basis of these Ahadith, a person can pray Qasr and can combine prayers when the distance he travels away from home is 3 miles. This distance is the minimum limit for Qasr prayer. However, there are many varied opinions on the minimum limit of the distance for example 9 miles, 48 miles or one day's journey, etc.

In our opinion the correct definition of a journey is what the society as a whole recognizes under their circumstances, the minimum limit being 3 miles.

Duration of Journey

A person can pray Qasr and combine his prayers for as long as he remains on a journey, whether it takes weeks, months or years. Even if he stays put in one place to fulfill the purpose of his journey he can continue to pray Qasr and combine his prayers. However, if he intended to stay in a place for a fixed number of days then the opinions differ on how long he can go on combining and shortening his prayers, e.g. 4 days, 10 days, 17 days , 18 days, etc.

After a careful study of Ahadith, we can say that when someone stays in a fixed place temporarily he would be considered a traveler on a journey, and there is no limit on the number of days he can pray Qasr and combine his prayers.

Nafl prayer on a journey

Prophet (pbuh) always offered Witr prayer during his journey and he emphasized and expressed the importance of 2 Rakaat Sunnat of the Fajr prayer. Therefore, the believers should pray these, while on a journey.

But what about any other Nafl and Sunnat prayer?

The following Hadith answers this question:

Hafs bin Asim says "I accompanied Abdullah bin Imar on a journey to Makkah. On the way to Makkah he led us in the Zuhr prayer and offered 2 Rakaat. Then he went to sit in his tent. He saw some people praying and asked me what they were doing. "They are praying Nafl" I said. Then he said"If I could pray Nafl then I should have prayed the complete Fard prayer", Then he continued, "I accompanied Allah's Messenger on a journey. He did not pray during his travels more than 2 Rakaat. Then I accompanied Abu Bakr, "Umar and Uthman and they did the same as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). There is a good example for you in the practice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). (Bukhairi)

There are some other Ahadith which prove that some of the companions used to pray Nafl during their journey. It is better not to pray Nafl while traveling, but if you stay somewhere and have time you may do so.